Biological complexity: keeping a cell organized (Introduction)

by David Turell @, Sunday, November 21, 2021, 16:24 (6 days ago) @ David Turell

A group of special proteins:

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2021/11/211114201758.htm

"In a study with lab-grown mouse cells, Johns Hopkins Medicine researchers say they have found that a protein that helps form a structural network under the surface of the cell's "command center" -- its nucleus -- is key to ensuring that DNA inside it remains orderly. The new experiments distinguish the role of the protein, called lamin C, revealing its usefulness in diagnostics and treatments for a variety of genetic disorders linked to DNA disorganization, such as the rapid aging disease known as progeria, muscular dystrophy and heart disorders related to mutations in these and related proteins.

***

"Each human cell's nucleus packs about 6 feet of tightly coiled DNA that holds the genetic instructions for every structure and function in the body. To keep the cell working, these threads of DNA must be organized into useable parts. The lamin proteins, which attach to the surface of the nucleus, do that by grabbing onto segments of the DNA, keeping them separate and tidy.

"'Each compartment created by a lamin acts like a kitchen utensil drawer, keeping knives, forks and spoons easy to access, and more rarely used items like serving pieces out of the way until needed," Reddy says.

"In a bid to better understand how lamins influence how the cell uses and organizes its DNA, Reddy and her team used fluorescent dyes to follow three types of lamin proteins -- A, B and C -- through cell division, when DNA from one cell is duplicated then split between two offspring cells.

"While lamin B has been easy to distinguish in previous studies, lamin A and lamin C have historically been treated as duplicate proteins because they are created from the same gene, says Reddy. However, there was growing evidence that A and C type lamins had distinct roles.

***

"Cells without lamin A seemed able to reorganize after cell division as efficiently as normal cells. However, the nuclear DNA organization again fell into disarray in cells without lamin C.

"Reddy says a reason for this distinction was revealed in the behavior of lamin C in dividing cells. Her team found that while lamins A and B quickly bind to the surface of a newly forming nucleus and begin grabbing sections of DNA, lamin C remains dispersed throughout the nucleus and retains a special molecular tag called phosphorylation. The researchers believe this suggests that this modified lamin C helps guide DNA into place during reorganization. Once the DNA is organized, lamin C loses its molecular tag and becomes associated with the rest of the lamins at the edge of the nucleus.

"'There is this exquisite choreography of the different lamin proteins and DNA to get things just as they should be," says Reddy.

***

"The researchers note that these results bring up several new questions, including the role lamins have in organizing and regulating DNA during development. The team hopes to identify how lamin proteins and the genome behave when one specific type of lamin is mutated or disrupted, since there appears to be some cross-talk between the different forms of lamins. They also plan to investigate the cellular pathways that control the lamin proteins, particularly for lamin C, to further distinguish the importance of its role in controlling DNA." (my bold)

Comment: Every aspect of cellular biochemical processes has controls, as in feedback loops previously described. Life based on free-floating protein molecules that must alter folding shapes requires guiding molecule controllers, which as my bold shows, must also have cellular controllers. So we see designed layers of controllers must exist to maintain order in our system of life homeostasis. Only a designing mind can create this.


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