Introducing the brain: stimulating neurons uses EPO (Introduction)

by David Turell @, Monday, March 16, 2020, 20:59 (190 days ago) @ David Turell

Erythropoietin is a protein that drives red cell production and stimulates neurons:

"Erythropoietin, or Epo for short, is a notorious doping agent. It promotes the formation of red blood cells, leading thereby to enhanced physical performance -- at least, that is what we have believed until now. However, as a growth factor, it also protects and regenerates nerve cells in the brain.


"'Administering Epo improves regeneration after a stroke (termed 'neuroprotection' or 'neurogeneration'), reducing damage in the brain. Patients with mental health disorders such as schizophrenia, depression, bipolar disorder or multiple sclerosis who have been treated with Epo have shown a significant improvement in cognitive performance," says Hannelore Ehrenreich


"The results of her research indicate that in adult mice, there is a 20 percent increase in the formation of nerve cells in the pyramidal layer of the hippocampus -- a brain region crucial for learning and memory -- after the growth factor is administered. "The nerve cells also form better networks with other nerve cells, and do this more quickly, making them more efficient at exchanging signals," says Ehrenreich.


"In a series of targeted experiments, they were able to prove that when learning complex motor tasks, nerve cells require more oxygen than is normally available to them. The resulting minor oxygen deficiency (relative hypoxia) triggers the signal for increased Epo production in the nerve cells. "This is a self-reinforcing process: Cognitive exertion leads to minor hypoxia, which we term 'functional hypoxia', which in turn stimulates the production of Epo and its receptors in the corresponding active nerve cells. Epo subsequently increases the activity of these nerve cells, induces the formation of new nerve cells from neighbouring precursor cells, and increases their complex interconnection, leading to a measurable improvement in cognitive performance in humans and mice," explained Ehrenreich."

Comment: the improvement in neuron function by EPO shows how the brain is capable of rallying its own neurons in to more active states by using anoxia as a trigger. Brain use of daily energy supply is an enormous 20% so this mechanism is an obvious add on to EPO's existing functions. Not by chance. A clear example of design.

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