Human evolution: extinction of earlier forms (Introduction)

by David Turell @, Thursday, October 15, 2020, 19:11 (10 days ago) @ David Turell

Why did some of the early branches disappear:

https://phys.org/news/2020-10-climate-drove-early-human-species.html

"'Our findings show that despite technological innovations including the use of fire and refined stone tools, the formation of complex social networks, and—in the case of Neanderthals—even the production of glued spear points, fitted clothes, and a good amount of cultural and genetic exchange with Homo sapiens, past Homo species could not survive intense climate change," says Pasquale Raia of Università di Napoli Federico II in Napoli, Italy. "They tried hard; they made for the warmest places in reach as the climate got cold, but at the end of the day, that wasn't enough."

"To shed light on past extinctions of Homo species including H. habilis, H. ergaster, H. erectus, H. heidelbergensis, H. neanderthalensis, and H. sapiens, the researchers relied on a high-resolution past climate emulator, which provides temperature, rainfall, and other data over the last 5 million years. They also looked to an extensive fossil database spanning more than 2,750 archaeological records to model the evolution of Homo species' climatic niche over time. The goal was to understand the climate preferences of those early humans and how they reacted to changes in climate.

"Their studies offer robust evidence that three Homo species—H. erectus, H. heidelbergensis, and H. neanderthalensis—lost a significant portion of their climatic niche just before going extinct. They report that this reduction coincided with sharp, unfavorable changes in the global climate. In the case of Neanderthals, things were likely made even worse by competition with H. sapiens.

"'We were surprised by the regularity of the effect of climate change," Raia says. "It was crystal clear, for the extinct species and for them only, that climatic conditions were just too extreme just before extinction and only in that particular moment.'"

Comment: The last ice age technically ended 11,700 years ago. This means the Earth was quite cold while these forms of homo tried to survive, obviouslty we had the brains to do it.


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