Biochemical controls: plant controls for gravity (Introduction)

by David Turell @, Sunday, August 13, 2023, 23:08 (346 days ago) @ David Turell

Plant bodies up, roots down:

"Plants orient their organs in response to the gravity vector, with roots growing towards gravity and shoots growing in the opposite direction. The movement of statoliths responding to the inclination relative to the gravity vector is employed for gravity sensing in both plants and animals. However, in plants, the statolith takes the form of a high-density organelle, known as an amyloplast, which settles toward gravity within the gravity sensing cell. Despite the significance of this gravity sensing mechanism, the exact process behind it has eluded scientists for over a century.


"In their earlier work, the team discovered that Arabidopsis LAZY1-LIKE (LZY) proteins play a crucial role in gravity signal transduction, with polar localization at the plasma membrane on the side of gravity. Nevertheless, the exact mechanism establishing this remarkable localization remained unknown.

"Through sophisticated live cell imaging techniques, including vertical stage microscopy and optical tweezers, the research team made a significant breakthrough. They found that LZYs not only localize at the plasma membrane near amyloplasts but also at the amyloplasts themselves. "The plasma membrane localization of LZYs surprised us, as it is generated by the close proximity of amyloplasts to the membrane," explained Takeshi Nishimura, Assistant Professor at NIBB and the first author of the study.

"'We demonstrated that localization on both the plasma membrane and amyloplasts is necessary for gravity signaling in roots, indicating its fundamental role in this process," added Hiromasa Shikata, Assistant Professor at NIBB and the co-first author.

"Professor Miyo Terao Morita further emphasized, "LZYs act as signal molecules, transmitting positional information from amyloplasts to the plasma membrane, where the regulation of auxin transport occurs." This revelation provides compelling support for the "position sensor hypothesis," explaining gravity sensing in plants through the proximity or the contact between statoliths and the plasma membrane."

Comment: another complex mechanism that cannot have been discovered by chance. Upright plants had to have this mechanism at the beginning of their existence.

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